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13. References


13.1 We prefer footnotes to endnotes, as many of our books are read as PDFs and footnotes are much more reader-friendly than endnotes. 

13.2. We prefer and encourage the Chicago Manual’s Notes and Bibliography format (preferred in the Humanities), with full bibliographic citations included in footnotes upon first mention in each chapter. Subsequent citations may be shortened following CMoS guidelines.

Alternatively, you may use the Author-Date format (sometimes preferred in the Social Sciences) with abbreviated, parenthetical, in-text citations and a full bibliography at the end of the book. We discourage the use of this style in books with many references, as the parentheticals obstruct the reading experience. Please note that we do not allow any other citation style.

Treat each chapter separately, in terms of its citational apparatus. If you are using CMoS Notes and Bibliography format, and you cite certain works multiple times throughout your book, make sure that the first time those works are cited  within a chapter, you provide a full bibliographic citation in a footnote. For each subsequent citation of the same work within a chapter, use a shortened reference format in your footnotes (we are okay with either abbreviated citations or ibid., or a combination of both).

1. Henrik Winterbottom, Curdle or Die: How to Stir Up Your Life (London: Penguin, 2013), 8.
2. Aisha Domenic, “Elementary Emmenthal Dynamics,” Experimental Dairy Physics 45, no. 4 (1989): 59.
3. Ibid., 61.
3. Winterbottom, Curdle or Die, 12.
4. Ibid., 15.

13.3 To refer to previously mentioned references, we only use "ibid." We don't "op. cit." and discourage usage of backreferrals such as "see fn. 4" or "vid. supra." When preparing footnotes in general, always keep in mind that they should be as useful to the reader as possible: we don’t want readers to have to work too hard to navigate and reference any book’s sources.

13.4 ForTwo onlinereferences sources,are weseparated prefer no “Accessed on such-and-suchby a date”comma information,and but"and." weThree door prefermore fullreferences URLsare asseparated wellby assemicolons and a final "and."

Erin Manning, “What If It Didn’t All Begin and End with Containment? Toward a Leaky Sense of Self,” Body & Society 15, no. 3 (2009): 35, and Tsing, The Mushroom at the spelling outEnd of informationthe that will be useful to future researchers when URLs break, as they often do. To wit:

  1. Henry Brie, “Why Do Millennials Not Understand Cheese?” SlateWorld, May45.


    Julietta 2014,Singh, about_cheese.html.

  2. Archive
Will Restore You (Earth: punctum books, 2018), 32; Kristeva, Powers of Horror, 2–3; and Margrit Shildrick, Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)ethics (New York: Routledge, 1997), 48.


13.5 Every book will need a comprehensive bibliography prepared according to the chosen format, Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date. In edited collections, bibliographies should follow each chapter.

Check your bibliography as an integral part of the writing process: Who are you citing and why? Are there authors, especially female-identified, of color, or other historically marginalized groups that are absent? Avoid having a "bro-bibliography"!

We do not include the URL of web pages of or sympathetic to racists, fascists, or homophobes. It is ok to include such references as part of a scholarly discussion, but we don't want to redirect traffic to their sites.

13.6 Whenever possible, add DOI numbers to articles and chapters.

Havarti, Laurie T. “Understanding Americans’ Perceptions of Pasteurization Processes.” The Journal of American Dairy Producers 12, no. 4 (2014): 431–44. DOI: 10.1177/1368430209764550.

If no DOI number is available, see if the article is available on JSTOR or Project MUSE. For open journals, there is also sometimes a direct URL to the journal website you can add.

13.6 If a URL is no longer active, include the archive URL from the Internet Archive.

13.7 We discourage referring to Kindle or EPUB editions of books. These ephemera will disappear from the face of the earth long before the last book is printed.

13.8 Avoid including "original" publication dates in references. Only refer to editions that you have autoptically inspected during the writing process. If needed and relevant, original publication dates can be parenthetically mentioned in the main text.

13.9 Include edition number only when there are considerable differences between different editions of a book.

13.10 Do not include state abbreviations for place of publication.

13.11 Do not include "acccessed at" or "last modified at" dates.

CMoS Notes and Bibliography Style (punctum books Adaptation)

Monograph, Single Author

Dominic Pettman, Look at the Bunny: Totem, Taboo, Technology (London: Zer0 Books, 2013), 63–64.

Shortened note:
Pettman, Look at the Bunny, 320.

Bibliographic entry:
Pettman, Dominic. Look at the Bunny: Totem, Taboo, Technology. London: Zer0 Books, 2013.

Monograph, Multiple Authors

Michael Moynihan and Didrik Søderlind, Lords of Chaos: The Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground (Port Townsend: Feral House, 1998), 12.

Shortened note:
Moynihan and Søderlind, Lords of Chaos, 11.

Bibliographic entry:
Moynihan, Michael, and Didrik Søderlind. Lords of Chaos: The Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground. Port Townsend: Feral House, 1998.

Edited Monograph

J.G. Ballard, Extreme Metaphors: Collected Interviews, eds. Simon Sellars and Dan O’Hara (London: Fourth Estate, 2012), 33.

Shortened note:
Ballard, Extreme Metaphors, 34.

Bibliographic entry: 
Ballard, J.G. Extreme Metaphors: Collected Interviews. Edited by Simon Sellars and Dan O’Hara. London: Fourth Estate, 2012.

Translated Monograph

Gabriel Zucman, The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens, trans. Teresa Lavender Fagan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 48.

Shortened note:
Zucman, The Hidden Wealth of Nations, 34.

Bibliographic entry: 
Zucman, Gabriel. The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens. Translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Single Volume in a Multi-Volume Work

James Bryce, The American Commonwealth, vol. 3:The Party System and Public Opinion (New York: Macmillan, 1888)

Shortened note:
Bryce, The American Commonwealth, vol. 3, 56.

Bibliographic entry: 
Bryce, James. The American Commonwealth, Vol. 3: The Party System and Public Opinion. New York: Macmillan, 1888.

Edited Volume, Single Editor

David T. Tew, ed. Ketamine: Use and Abuse (New York: CRC Press, 2015), 100–101.

Shortened note:
Tew, Ketamine, 10.

Bibliographic entry:
Tew, David T., ed. Ketamine: Use and Abuse. New York: CRC Press, 2015.

Edited Volume, Multiple Editors

V. Vale and Andrea Juno, eds., RE/Search #8/9: J.G. Ballard (San Francisco: Re/Search Publications, 1984), 34.

Shortened note:
Vale and Juno, RE/Search #8/9, 45.

Bibliographic entry:
Vale, V., and Andrea Juno, eds. RE/Search #8/9: J.G. Ballard. San Francisco: Re/Search Publications, 1984.

  • Dustan, Guillaume. Novels. Vol. 1 of The Works

    Part of Guillaumean Dustan.Edited TranslatedVolume, bySingle DanielEditor


    Note: Los
    Jussi Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2021.

  • Foucault, Michel.Parikka,Sex,Planetary Power,Memories: andAfter Extinction, the PoliticsImagined Future,” in After Extinction, ed. Richard Grusin (Minneapolis: University of Identity.Minnesota Press, 2018), 27–49.

    Shortened note:
    Parikka, "Planetary Memories," 28.

    Bibliographic entry: 
    Parikka, Jussi. “Planetary Memories: After Extinction, the Imagined Future.” In Ethics:After Subjectivity and TruthExtinction,, edited by PaulRichard Rabinow.Grusin, Translated27–49. byMinneapolis: Robert J. Hurley, 163–73. Vol. 1 of Essential WorksUniversity of Foucault 1954–1984. New York: The NewMinnesota Press, 1997.

  • 2018.


An bookindividual citations

  • Theis CMoScited doesin notthe offernote aas citation stylepart of comican books.edited Thevolume, number of the comic should be included in italics following the title, with the publishing information following, as it would in a book. However, if the author has offered a consistent style, that would be appropriate also.
    • e.g., Fake, Edie. Gaylord Phoenix #7. Chicago: Perfectly Acceptable Press, 2017.
Poetry collection exemptions
  • Unlike essays, when in a footnote a poem from a poetry anthology is cited,but in the bibliography only listthe entire volume of poetry is added (so no entries for individual poems).

    Part of an Edited Volume, Multiple Editors

    Gary J. Shipley, “Monster at the poetryEnd: collection,Pessimism’s notLocked Rooms and Impossible Crimes,” in True Detection, eds. Edia Connole, Paul J. Ennis, and Nicola Masciandaro (London: Schism, 2014), 1–27.

    Shortened note:
    Shipley, "The Monster at the individualEnd," poem.

  • 2.

  • For

    Bibliographic poemsentry: republished
    Shipley, onGary J. “Monster at the End: Pessimism’s Locked Rooms and Impossible Crimes.” InPoetry FoundationTrue Detection, edited by Edia Connole, Paul J. Ennis, and Nicola Masciandaro, 1–27. London: Schism, 2014.

    Journal Article

    Christopher Claassen, “In the Mood for Democracy? Democratic Support as Thermostatic Opinion,” American Political Science Review 114, no. 1 (February 2020): 36–53.

    Shortened note:
    Claassen, "In the Mood for Democracy?," 37.

    Bibliographic entry: 
    Claassen, Christopher. “In the Mood for Democracy? Democratic Support as Thermostatic Opinion.” American Political Science Review 114, no. 1 (February 2020): 36–53. DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000558.

    Online News or otherMagazine site,Article


    Note: the
    Roger republicationCohen, date“American isCatastrophe notthrough offered,German include the original publication date in parentheses following the title.

    • e..g, Emily Dickinson, "Some Title" (1951),Eyes,” The PoetryNew FoundationYork Times,, URL.
    • July
  • 24,
Movies,2020. tv


Shortened andnote: podcasts

  • CMoS“American offersCatastrophe manythrough toGerman citeEyes.”


    Bibliographic tventry: shows,
    Cohen, andRoger. podcasts.“American punctumCatastrophe stylethrough tendsGerman towardEyes.” The New York Times, July 24, 2020.

    Thesis or Dissertation

    Lajos Brons, "Rethinking the formatCulture-Economy leaningDialectic," mostPhD towardDiss., books. The piecesUniversity of
    Groningen, information2005, that25.


    Shortened needednote: are
    Brons, "Rethinking the director,Culture-Economy Dialectic," 26.

    Bibliographic entry: 
    Brons, Lajos. "dir.,"Rethinking the title,Culture-Economy theDialectic." locationPhD Diss., University of
    Groningen, the2005.

    studio, the name of the studio, and the year of release.
    • E.g., Barnett, Mike, dir. Superheroes. Home Box Office, 2011.
    • E.g., Danforth, Mike, and Ian Chilla. “F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points,” April 21, 2015, in How to Do Everything, produced by Gillian Donovan, podcast, 
The Stanford

Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Notes-Bibliography:Note: LastName,
Graham FirstName,Oppy and FirstNameDavid Lastnam.Dowe, "EntryThe TitleTuring Test (publication year).2021)," Inin In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,  edited byed. Edward N. Zalta.Zalta, [url]

  • Bibliography:

    Shortened note:
    Graham and Dowe. "The Turing Test."

    Bibliographic entry: 
    Oppy, Graham, and David Dowe. "The Turing Test (2021)." In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,  edited by Edward N. Zalta. [url]

  • Footnote:

    Wikipedia Grahamor OppyOther Collectively Edited Online Encyclopedia

    Wikipedia, s.v. "De rerum natura,"

    No shortened note format, and Davidnot Dowe,entered into bibliography.


    "TheValentine's Turing Test (2021),Day," inPatricia's Petals,

    Bibliographic entry: 
    "Valentine's Day." ThePatricia's StanfordPetals. Encyclopedia

    YouTube Videos

    TED, “How AI Could Become an Extension of Philosophy,Your Mind | Anvar Kapur,” YouTube, June ed.6, Edward N. Zalta. [url].

  • Shortened footnote: Oppy and Dowe, "The Turing Test."


  • Bibliography/Works Cited: Oppy, Graham, and David Dowe. 2021. "The Turing Test." In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. [url].
  • (Oppy and Dowe 2021)
punctum style amendments to the CMoS
  • You do not need to specify the state or country where the book was published. This allows for more equitable treatment between publishers and their locations throughout the world. (E.g., Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2017; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017; Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2019; Ljubljana, Slovenia: Založba ZRC SAZU, 2015). This too goes for the footnotes.
  • “Accessed on,” “Last modified,” etc. date and time information is not necessary.
  • YouTube and Vimeo: Here, you are citing the digital, posted video in both the footnotes and bibliography. Because these are not the most stable or reliable sources, you will want to include as much information as possible. Therefore, you include the posting author, the title of the video, the name of the website in italics, the posting date and the url. In order to keep the url manageable, some of it can be deleted. Look closely, the bolded, underlined text is deletable:
    • E.g., engineeringhistory. “IEEE-REACH Promotional Video.” YouTube, January 19, 2016.2019. com/watch?v=5vmMxJrt3F4.
    • TrofjEAetVs.

  • Shortened

  • Facebooknote: and
    TED, Twitter:“How Here,AI asCould above,Become youan areExtension citingof Your Mind | Anvar Kapur."

    Bibliographic entry: 
    TED. “How AI Could Become an Extension of Your Mind | Anvar Kapur.” YouTube, June 6, 2019. com/watch?v=TrofjEAetVs.

    Remove the actual, digital post. Because these are not the most stable or reliable sources, again, you will want to include as much information as possible. Therefore, you include the twitter handle preceded by the @, the website in italics, the posted date and time, and the url. Note that this is still a problematic citation style as the time and date are not universal due to timezone considerations, so supplementing as much information as possible is best practice.

    • E.g., @punctum_books. Twitter. January 19, 2016, 8:45AM. URL.
  • Wikipedia and other online encyclopedias and dictionaries: Authors should not typically cite Wikipedia, but there are a few exceptions, one of these being that if the author is writing about, for example, digital memory, citing Wikipedia might be demonstrative of that flux. In other words, citing Wikipedia might be appropriate. When citing, the author should include the namepart of the websiteURL in italics, s.v. [(sub verbo, "under the word") the keyword,including and the url. Note that date and time information is not included because user-generated content is not stable, which is something authors should keep in mind when citing anyway.
    • E.g., Wikipedia, s.v. "keyword." [URL].
  • In instances where two or more authors are included in the citation, the first author should have a comma after their name: Surname, Firstname, and Firstname Surname […].
    • E.g., Dath, Dietmar, and Barbara Kirchner. Der Implex: Sozialer Fortschritt: Geschichte und Idee. Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag, 2012.
  • Treat all bibliographic entries as equals, which means that a blog post is treated as equal to a Guardian article. The language we use is to structurally maintain equitability between sources. For example, blog posts should not be cited "(Blog post).", while the Guardian is treated as a more reputable source. Therefore, blogs are treated as magazine/newspaper format. Supply as much information as possible. This goes too with footnotes.
  • Related, proprietary (and predatory) sources such as, ProQuest, and others should not be cited if at all possible. Recommend to the author in a comment if there is a more stable or non-proprietary version available.
  • When double checking urls, titles, and so on, if the editor finds that the author has not supplied all the available information, the editor may supply it. Furthermore, if, for example, a blog post is not dated, but we can assume through context clues that the date is 2017, then supply that information with your best judgment.
    • E.g., “2017 International Air & Space Induction Celebration set for Nov. 9.” San Diego Air & Space Museum, September 14, 2017.
  • We do not accept Kindle locations instead of page numbers. Recommend the author supply a page number.


Citations in Footnotes

  • At the text or material’s first occurrence, use the full citation style as outlined by the CMoS.
  • Use “Ibid.” or “Ibid., pp.” if the same text or material immediately follows in the next footnote.
  • For both shortened and full footnotes: titles of articles and books that end with a question mark, a comma precedes the page number or Author, "Title?," 75. In bibliography, this is irrelevant.
  • For lists of sources: two or fewer sources are separated by comma; three or more are separated by a semicolon.
    • E.g., Source One, and Source Two.
    • E.g., Source One; Source Two; and Source Three.
  • When there is an editor or series of editors and a translator or a series of translators, the editors are named first.
  • Use a shortened citation as outlined by the CMoS in the second and on occurrence if the same text is not immediately following the precedingquestion citation.
  • mark.

  • If


    the footnote contains a citation as well as commentary:
  • The full or shortened citation appears first, as it cites the material directly in the main body text.
  • Copyedit the commentary as usual.
  • If “For more information on X” or “See X” is included, the secondary citation that leads to another text or material goes after the commentary. N.B.

    Note: Ensure
    Mike itBarnett, is clear that cited material goes with the proper citation. “See also” citations should be full citations that point clearly to another text.

    • E.g.: In the original French of Michel Houellebecq,dir., La possibilité d’une îleSuperheroes (Paris:Home J’aiBox Lu,Office, 2005),2011).


      Shortened age” is “celui de la vieillesse veritable, où l’anticipation de la perte du bonheur empêche même de la vivre” (“that of true old age, or the anticipation of the loss of happiness that prevents its being lived“) (161, my translation).

    • E.g.note: Tertullian writes of
      Barnett, carneSuperheroes.


      Bibliographic entry: 
      Barnett, Mike, dir.corps Superheroes. .Home SeeBox inOffice, particular2011.


      Social 4,Media 5,Posts


      Note: 9.
      @punctum_books, Tertullian,Twitter, Tertullian'sJanuary Treatise25, on2023, the Incarnation
      , ed. Ernest Evans (S.P.C.K., 1956), writes: “it was precisely the non-marvelous character of his terrestrial flesh [carnis] which made the rest of his activities things to marvel at” (37). In the same section 9, Tertullian writes that His flesh was not, as claimed by Gnostics Appelles and Marcion, miraculously “obtained from the stars” (90). The flesh of Christ was as actual as the flesh of Lazarus, whom Jesus resurrected from the dead, as our own (or, I suppose, as the flesh of the donkey which he rode into Bethlehem on Palm Sunday). Tertullian's treatise can be consulted online at “Tertullian on the Flesh of Christ,” The Tertullian Project, n.d.,8:09AM, http:

  • Bibliographic

Narrativesentry: in
@punctum_books. Footnotes


  • Avoid references, narrative, "see mores" that appear in parentheses in order to avoid these double ( [ ] ) brackets.
  • Two references are separated by a comma: [REF 1], and [REF 2]; Three or more references by semicolon: [REF 1]; [REF 2]; and [REF 3].