13. References


13.1 We prefer footnotes to endnotes, as many of our books are read as PDFs and footnotes are much more reader-friendly than endnotes. 

13.2. We prefer and encourage the Chicago Manual’s Notes and Bibliography format (preferred in the Humanities), with full bibliographic citations included in footnotes upon first mention in each chapter. Subsequent citations may be shortened following CMoS guidelines.

Alternatively, you may use the Author-Date format (sometimes preferred in the Social Sciences) with abbreviated, parenthetical, in-text citations and a full bibliography at the end of the book. We discourage the use of this style in books with many references, and many repeated references, as the parentheticals obstruct the reading experience. Please note that we do not allow any other citation style.

Treat each chapter separately, in terms of its citational apparatus. If you are using CMoS Notes and Bibliography format, and you cite certain works multiple times throughout your book, make sure that the first time those works are cited  within a chapter, you provide a full bibliographic citation in a footnote. For each subsequent citation of the same work within a chapter, use a shortened reference format in your footnotes (we are okay with either abbreviated citations or ibid., or a combination of both).

1. Henrik Winterbottom, Curdle or Die: How to Stir Up Your Life (London: Penguin, 2013), 8.
2. Aisha Domenic, “Elementary Emmenthal Dynamics,” Experimental Dairy Physics 45, no. 4 (1989): 59.
3. Ibid., 61.
3. Winterbottom, Curdle or Die, 12.
4. Ibid., 15.

13.3 To refer to previously mentioned references, we only use "ibid." We don't "op. cit." and discourage usage of backreferrals such as "see fn. 4" or "vid. supra." When preparing footnotes in general, always keep in mind that they should be as useful to the reader as possible: we don’t want readers to have to work too hard to navigate and reference any book’s sources.

13.4 Two references are separated by a comma and "and." Three or more references are separated by semicolons and a final "and."

Erin Manning, “What If It Didn’t All Begin and End with Containment? Toward a Leaky Sense of Self,” Body & Society 15, no. 3 (2009): 35, and Tsing, The Mushroom at the End of the World, 45.

Julietta Singh, No Archive Will Restore You (Earth: punctum books, 2018), 32; Kristeva, Powers of Horror, 2–3; and Margrit Shildrick, Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)ethics (New York: Routledge, 1997), 48.

13.5 If you are citing from an edited collection, cite the particular chapter you are citing from. If you are citing from a monograph, don't cite by chapter but by page number.

13.6 Cite introductions, prefaces, and forewords to monographs and the like written by an author other than the main author like a chapter in an edited collection.

Peter Eisenman, "The Houses of Memory: The Texts of Analogy," in Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City, trans. Diane Ghirardo and Joan Ockman (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982), 2–11.


13.7 Every book will need a comprehensive bibliography prepared according to the chosen format, Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date. In edited collections, bibliographies should follow each chapter.

Check your bibliography as an integral part of the writing process: Who are you citing and why? Are there authors, especially female-identified, of color, or other historically marginalized groups that are absent? Avoid having a "bro-bibliography"!

We do not include the URL of web pages of or sympathetic to racists, fascists, or homophobes. It is ok to include such references as part of a scholarly discussion, but we don't want to redirect traffic to their sites.

13.8 Whenever possible, add DOI numbers to articles and chapters.

Havarti, Laurie T. “Understanding Americans’ Perceptions of Pasteurization Processes.” The Journal of American Dairy Producers 12, no. 4 (2014): 431–44. DOI: 10.1177/1368430209764550.

If no DOI number is available, see if the article is available on JSTOR or Project MUSE. For open journals, there is also sometimes a direct URL to the journal website you can add.

13.9 If a URL is no longer active, include the archive URL from the Internet Archive.

Asimov, Isaac. "Questions." Computers and Automation 4, no. 3 (1955): 6–7. Archived at: https://archive.org/details112874.

13.10 We discourage referring to Kindle or EPUB editions of books. These ephemera will disappear from the face of the earth long before the last book is printed.

13.11 Avoid including "original" publication dates in references. Only refer to editions that you have autoptically inspected during the writing process. If needed and relevant, original publication dates can be parenthetically mentioned in the main text or in the footnote's narrative.

13.12 Include edition number only when there are considerable differences between different editions of a book.

13.13 Do not include state abbreviations for place of publication.

13.14 Do not include "acccessed at" or "last modified at" dates.

13.15 For chapters from an edited collection mentioned in a bibliography it is not necessary to also mention the entire publication separately, unless as such referenced in a note.

CMoS Notes and Bibliography Style (punctum books Adaptation)

Monograph, Single Author

Dominic Pettman, Look at the Bunny: Totem, Taboo, Technology (London: Zer0 Books, 2013), 63–64.

Shortened note:
Pettman, Look at the Bunny, 320.

Bibliographic entry:
Pettman, Dominic. Look at the Bunny: Totem, Taboo, Technology. London: Zer0 Books, 2013.

Monograph, Multiple Authors

Michael Moynihan and Didrik Søderlind, Lords of Chaos: The Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground (Port Townsend: Feral House, 1998), 12.

Shortened note:
Moynihan and Søderlind, Lords of Chaos, 11.

Bibliographic entry:
Moynihan, Michael, and Didrik Søderlind. Lords of Chaos: The Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground. Port Townsend: Feral House, 1998.

Edited Monograph

J.G. Ballard, Extreme Metaphors: Collected Interviews, eds. Simon Sellars and Dan O’Hara (London: Fourth Estate, 2012), 33.

Shortened note:
Ballard, Extreme Metaphors, 34.

Bibliographic entry:
Ballard, J.G. Extreme Metaphors: Collected Interviews. Edited by Simon Sellars and Dan O’Hara. London: Fourth Estate, 2012.

Translated Monograph

Gabriel Zucman, The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens, trans. Teresa Lavender Fagan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 48.

Shortened note:
Zucman, The Hidden Wealth of Nations, 34.

Bibliographic entry:
Zucman, Gabriel. The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens. Translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Single Volume in a Multi-Volume Work

James Bryce, The American Commonwealth, vol. 3: The Party System and Public Opinion (New York: Macmillan, 1888)

Shortened note:
Bryce, The American Commonwealth, vol. 3, 56.

Bibliographic entry:
Bryce, James. The American Commonwealth, Vol. 3: The Party System and Public Opinion. New York: Macmillan, 1888.

Edited Volume, Single Editor

David T. Tew, ed. Ketamine: Use and Abuse (New York: CRC Press, 2015), 100–101.

Shortened note:
Tew, Ketamine, 10.

Bibliographic entry:
Tew, David T., ed. Ketamine: Use and Abuse. New York: CRC Press, 2015.

Edited Volume, Multiple Editors

V. Vale and Andrea Juno, eds., RE/Search #8/9: J.G. Ballard (San Francisco: Re/Search Publications, 1984), 34.

Shortened note:
Vale and Juno, RE/Search #8/9, 45.

Bibliographic entry:
Vale, V., and Andrea Juno, eds. RE/Search #8/9: J.G. Ballard. San Francisco: Re/Search Publications, 1984.

Part of an Edited Volume, Single Editor

Jussi Parikka, “Planetary Memories: After Extinction, the Imagined Future,” in After Extinction, ed. Richard Grusin (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2018), 27–49.

Shortened note:
Parikka, "Planetary Memories," 28.

Bibliographic entry:
Parikka, Jussi. “Planetary Memories: After Extinction, the Imagined Future.” In After Extinction, edited by Richard Grusin, 27–49. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2018.

An individual poem is cited in the note as part of an edited volume, but in the bibliography only the entire volume of poetry is added (so no entries for individual poems).

Part of an Edited Volume, Multiple Editors

Gary J. Shipley, “Monster at the End: Pessimism’s Locked Rooms and Impossible Crimes,” in True Detection, eds. Edia Connole, Paul J. Ennis, and Nicola Masciandaro (London: Schism, 2014), 1–27.

Shortened note:
Shipley, "The Monster at the End," 2.

Bibliographic entry:
Shipley, Gary J. “Monster at the End: Pessimism’s Locked Rooms and Impossible Crimes.” In True Detection, edited by Edia Connole, Paul J. Ennis, and Nicola Masciandaro, 1–27. London: Schism, 2014.

Journal Article

Christopher Claassen, “In the Mood for Democracy? Democratic Support as Thermostatic Opinion,” American Political Science Review 114, no. 1 (February 2020): 36–53.

Shortened note:
Claassen, "In the Mood for Democracy?," 37.

Bibliographic entry:
Claassen, Christopher. “In the Mood for Democracy? Democratic Support as Thermostatic Opinion.” American Political Science Review 114, no. 1 (February 2020): 36–53. DOI: 10.1017/S0003055419000558.

If a journal is only available online, add the URL both to the Note (preceded by comma) and the Bibliographic entry (preceded by period).

Online News or Magazine Article

Roger Cohen, “American Catastrophe through German Eyes,” The New York Times, July 24, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/24/opinion/trump-germany.html.

Shortened note:
Cohen, “American Catastrophe through German Eyes.”

Bibliographic entry:
Cohen, Roger. “American Catastrophe through German Eyes.” The New York Times, July 24, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/24/opinion/trump-germany.html.

Thesis or Dissertation

Lajos Brons, "Rethinking the Culture-Economy Dialectic" (PhD Diss., University of
Groningen, 2005), 25.

Shortened note:
Brons, "Rethinking the Culture-Economy Dialectic," 26.

Bibliographic entry:
Brons, Lajos. "Rethinking the Culture-Economy Dialectic." PhD Diss., University of
Groningen, 2005.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Graham Oppy and David Dowe, "The Turing Test (2021)," in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-test/.

Shortened note:
Graham and Dowe. "The Turing Test."

Bibliographic entry:
Oppy, Graham, and David Dowe. "The Turing Test (2021)." In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-test/.

The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud, “The ‘Uncanny’,” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 17: An Infantile Neurosis and Other Works (1917–1919), ed. and trans. James Strachey with Anna Freud (London: Hogarth Press, 1955), 217–56.

Shortened note:
Freud, "The 'Uncanny'," 234.

Bibliographic entry:
Freud, Sigmund. “The ‘Uncanny’.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 17: An Infantile Neurosis and Other Works (1917–1919), edited and translated by James Strachey with Anna Freud, 217–56. London: Hogarth Press, 1955.

Wikipedia or Other Collectively Edited Online Encyclopedias

Wikipedia, s.v. "De rerum natura," https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_rerum_natura.

No shortened note format, no italicization, and no entry into bibliography.


"Valentine's Day," Patricia's Petals, https://patriciaspetals.com/categories/valentines-day.

Bibliographic entry:
"Valentine's Day." Patricia's Petals. https://patriciaspetals.com/categories/valentines-day.

If there is more metadata like authors or publication dates available, please add those too.

YouTube Videos

TED, “How AI Could Become an Extension of Your Mind | Anvar Kapur,” YouTube, June 6, 2019. https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=TrofjEAetVs.

Shortened note:
TED, “How AI Could Become an Extension of Your Mind | Anvar Kapur."

Bibliographic entry:
TED. “How AI Could Become an Extension of Your Mind | Anvar Kapur.” YouTube, June 6, 2019. https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=TrofjEAetVs.

Remove the part of the URL including and following the question mark.


Mike Barnett, dir., Superheroes (Home Box Office, 2011).

Shortened note:
Barnett, Superheroes.

Bibliographic entry:
Barnett, Mike, dir. Superheroes. Home Box Office, 2011.

Social Media Posts

@punctum_books, Twitter, January 25, 2023, 8:09AM, https://twitter.com/punctum_books/status/1618279947180838912.

Bibliographic entry:
@punctum_books. Twitter. January 25, 2023, 8:09AM. https://twitter.com/punctum_books/status/1618279947180838912.


Repeating Authors in Bibliography

Repeating authors in a bibliography are indicated with three em dashes. Note that the repetition may not add additional authors:

Deleuze, Gilles. WORK 1…
Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. WORK 3…
———. WORK 4…

Revision #22
Created 25 January 2023 17:17:26 by Vincent
Updated 15 June 2024 10:04:32 by Vincent